4 Cs of Recurring Billing

on Jun16
recurring billing
Written by
James Davis
Written by James Davis
Senior Technical Writer at United Thinkers
Author of the Paylosophy blog, a veteran writer, and a stock analyst with extensive knowledge and experience in the financial services industry that allows me to cover the latest payment industry news, developments, and insights. Read more
recurring billing
Reviewed by
Kathrine Pensatori
Product Specialist at United Thinkers
Product specialist with more than 10 years of experience in the Payment Processing Industry. I help payment facilitators and PSPs solve their various payment processing issues. Read more

The purpose of this article is to explain the key mechanisms a business must put in place to implement a coherent recurring billing solution. While in one of our previous articles we described the 3 Cs (creation, conveyance and collections) from a general transaction processing perspective, in this post we are going to focus on recurring billing processing and define 4 Cs of a recurring billing solution.

Each of the Cs reflects a certain aspect of recurring payment processing.


As we mentioned in the article on 3 Cs, creation of payments is associated with a system, from which these payments originate. The key elements around the creation phase of a recurring billing solution are:

  • Subscription Types. Subscription types reflect various service and product options offered by the merchant.
  • Payment Plans. Payment plans reflect specific payment arrangements (frequency of payments’ recurrence etc)
  • Payment Methods. Payment methods include electronic form of payment to be used in recurring billing process
  • Payment Page Security. This aspect incorporates means for capturing and secure processing of cardholder data. Detailed information on payment pages can be found in the respective article.


It has been mentioned that compliance is a critical issue in recurring billing context, as recurring billing requires cardholder data to be stored somewhere in order for subscription-based business to be able to access it at regular intervals, when the actual billing takes place. Detailed information on PCI compliance requirements can be found in the respective article. The items to consider in the context of compliance are:

  • Card Data Storage (who is going to store cardholder data and how it will be stored). Cardholder data storage options are described in the respective article of our blog
  • Tokenization. One of the most common solutions for PCI compliance is tokenization. As we described in our respective post, tokenization is a flexible mechanism allowing companies to reduce their PCI scope or even get out of it completely, while still being able to process recurring transactions. The company must decide, how to implement tokenization in order to make PCI audit as smooth as possible
  • Data Ownership. The inherent problem of tokenization is the ownership of cardholder data. Ownership (and, particularly, change of ownership) of cardholder data is a tricky matter, especially, when it comes to third-party tokenization. If the company uses tokenization services, provided by some external entity, and wants to switch to another tokenization services provider, the original provider might claim the ownership of cardholder data and refuse to handle it to the new provider. In order to avoid situations like this one, data ownership and related matters must be taken care of and agreed upon in advance


As we mentioned in the article on 3 Cs conveyance of payments concerns relationship with payment gateways through which transactions will be submitted to the processor. Conveyance of payments calls for implementation of the following important aspects and relationships in the recurring billing system:

  • Soft Descriptors. Implementation of soft or dynamic descriptors is an important issue, particularly in recurring billing context. The soft descriptors allow customers who have multiple subscriptions (or those who subscribed to a service a month ago) to recall which particular subscription they are charged for, when the statement arrives. Soft descriptors are also an essential feature to be implemented by companies, using aggregation model, as they include the descriptions of the aggregator, the merchant, and the transaction itself. In all described cases implementation of soft descriptors allow companies to avoid chargebacks, erroneously issued by customers
  • PSPs, Acquirers. The company needs to decide, who is going to underwrite its own merchant account or merchant accounts of other businesses that it will be servicing. Respective relationships with PSPs and acquirers must be established, taking into consideration not only pricing, but also the need for different currencies and overall feature set.
  • Gateways. If a company decides to use a payment gateway, it needs to carefully consider the choice of a particular payment gateway solution (hosted, licensed or in-house), which is most suitable for the company’s business model.
  • Direct-to-Processor. Usage of hosted gateways is undesirable when a direct-to-processor integration is necessary. In this case the company needs to find some licensable payment gateway software that can be used to simplify the integration process
  • Hybrid. If the company needs a combination of gateway and direct-to-processor integrations, it also has to implement the optimal (in terms of value-for-money) combination of the respective approaches


Collections of payments calls for implementation of the following items:

  • Reconciliation. Even in the most basic processing scenarios (for example, a gateway for credit cards and a bank for ACH) the entire process of reconciliation (matching of what was processed to what was received as a deposit from the processor) needs to be thought through. The company should implement the most flexible and transparent reconciliation mechanism
  • Decline Management. Decline handling is of particular importance for recurring billing, because if transaction declines, future recurring billings may not be possible. At the same time, contacting cardholder all the time is an expensive process. Some type of retrying\recycling\rebilling mechanism should be defined and implemented beforehand to minimize interactions with the customer.
  • Credit Card Updater. A typical reason for a decline is outdated credit card information (expired card). A common solution to this problem is implementation of credit card updater functionality (described in the respective article on decline recycling) as part of the decline recycling process
  • Customer Communication. No matter how good your decline recycling mechanism might be, some contact with the customer is still unavoidable. Therefore, it is essential to think through the customer communication process and the rules that the agents will follow as they call upon customers trying to collect declined transactions
  • Dunning Management. In some cases communication with a customer proves to be ineffective and debt has to be collected in some other way, be it through additional calls or e-mails, or via some third-party collections company. Some companies might prefer to drop the account and terminate the service while others may engage the services of a third-party collections company to still collect the debt. It is advisable to define collections strategy before getting the actual subscribers. In our respective article collections process is described in greater detail
  • Charge Back Management. In order to preserve its good reputation and avoid getting into the Terminated Merchant File (TMF), any company must keep the number of chargebacks issued by its customers at the minimum. In some cases even detailed soft (dynamic) descriptors are insufficient. Therefore, the company needs specific mechanisms to obtain chargeback information as soon as it is available, as well as to have a process to respond to inquiries and dispute chargebacks (these matters are addressed in the respective article).


In order to implement recurring billing it is not sufficient for a company to just find some recurring payment platform, which will regularly charge certain amounts from the clients. All aspects regarding creation, compliance, conveyance, and collections, must be taken care of in advance. Consequently, all technical features must be analyzed, appropriate business relationships (for underwriting etc.) should be established, and all processes around decline recycling and payment collection should be defined.

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